Mention the two major categories that distinctly classify the variables of C# programs.

Variables that are defined in a C# program belong to two major categories: value type and reference type. The variables that are based on value type contain a value that is either allocated on a stack or allocated in-line in a structure. The variables that are based on reference types store the memory address of a variable, which in turn stores the value and are allocated on the heap. The variables that are based on value types have their own copy of data and therefore operations done on one variable do not affect other variables. The reference-type variables reflect the changes made in the referring variables.
Predict the output of the following code segment:

int x = 42;
int y = 12;
int w;
object o;
o = x;
w = y * (int)o;
/* The output of the code is 504. */
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